Eye pressure, or ocular pressure, refers to the internal pressure of the eyeball in mm Hg. This ratio defines the relationship between the production of ocular fluid (aqueous humor) and the fluid that flows out through the drainage canal. When a balance cannot be sustained between the production and drainage systems of the eye, dysfunctions or disease can occur. Eye pressure is, for this reason, used as a partial indicator of overall optical health. The typical ocular pressure is between 12 and 22 mm Hg.
Eye pressure is a vital component in the overall health of the eye and can be an indicator of ocular disease. In healthy individuals, normal ocular pressure can range from 12 to 22 mm Hg. If ocular pressure is above 22 mm Hg, it is considered high. Ocular hypertension, as high eye pressure is known, is considered a strong risk factor for glaucoma and can cause permanent damage to the eye. Eye pressure can be influenced by a variety of factors including diet, exercise, genetics and age.
The pressure within the eye is defined by the rate of production of aqueous humor (the fluid within the eye) and the rate of drainage of that fluid from the eye through the drainage canal. When eye pressure builds up, it can usually be attributed to one of two factors: Either the drainage canal is failing to drain properly, or there is an excess of production of aqueous humor. The former causal factor is defined medically as glaucoma and is the usual culprit of high ocular pressure, whereas the latter is typically caused by an abnormality or tumor-growth of the ciliary body and far less common.
There are many reasons that can give rise to a feeling of pressure behind the eyes. Common causes include sinus pressure, migraine headaches, or increased intraocular pressure. If your symptoms are severe or persist for several days, seek professional medical attention.
High intraocular pressure, sometimes called ocular hypertension, is caused by an excess buildup of fluid in the eye. This can be due to an abnormal production of aqueous fluid, improper drainage of the aqueous fluid, eye trauma, or certain eye conditions. A doctor may prescribe eye drops to lower ocular pressure medically, but you can also reduce your high eye pressure with exercise, lowering your stress levels, and cutting back on insulin-spiking foods.
Light exercise, reducing stress, and decreasing insulin-spiking factors from your diet will all help to naturally reduce the eye or migraine pressure. However, if your IOP is above 22mm Hg, you should seek immediate medical attention, as sustained pressure above that level can cause permanent ocular damage and lead to glaucoma. If you’re unsure about your ocular pressure, schedule an appointment with your ophthalmologist as soon as possible.
Glaucoma is a disease of the eye caused by damage to the optic nerve. The primary cause of glaucoma is poor drainage of fluid through the drainage angle—known as open-angle glaucoma. Another more dangerous form of glaucoma, known as angle-closure glaucoma, occurs when the iris blocks the drainage angle and prevents drainage, thereby building up fluid pressure in the eye and damaging the optic nerve.
It can be. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma, you and your family members face increased risk. Open-angle glaucoma is a hereditary form of glaucoma and you may be at a four to nine times greater risk of developing glaucoma during your lifetime if you carry the genetic risk. Angle-closure glaucoma is also related to genetic factors. Regular eye exams are an important part of maintaining your optic health, whether you are at risk or not.
Depending on the type of glaucoma, you can experience different symptoms. For acute angle closure glaucoma, symptoms include intense eye pain, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, a red eye, headache, halos around lights, and blurred vision. Open-angle glaucoma is more likely to involve patchy blind spots in your vision.
Vision and optical health are a big concern in the modern age, especially considering the ever-increasing amount of time we spend looking at electronic screens. Despite the popular headlines, the biggest risk factors for serious vision problems and disease are actually still the hereditary risks for diseases like glaucoma. Even so, there are many steps individuals can take to reduce their risk of glaucoma. These include exercise and maintaining a healthy body weight, maintaining a healthy blood pressure level, not smoking, limiting caffeine intake, and getting regular eye exams to detect increased pressure in the eye as soon as it starts to happen.
Contrary to popular belief, glaucoma does not usually have obvious visual indicators. Angle-closure glaucoma, which accounts for less than 2% of all prescribed cases, is the only obvious visual indication that a person is suffering from the disease. In this case, the iris of an afflicted individual slips over the drainage angle and blocks the outflow of excess fluid from the eye. However, in the majority of glaucoma cases, the only apparent symptoms are blurred or double vision, abnormal pressure behind the eye, or muted/yellowed colors.
Glaucoma is not simply an increase of ocular pressure, but the loss of optical nerve function as a result of heightened intraocular pressure (IOP). Therefore, every case of ocular hypertension is not necessarily glaucoma, but every glaucoma is considered a progressed case of IOP. Glaucoma is only an official diagnosis when heightened inner-eye pressure has caused damage to the optic nerve and doctors see this through digital imaging.
The most common form of glaucoma, Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, occurs when the drainage angle of the eye fails to properly drain fluid from the eye. This causes an increase of pressure on the optic nerve and can permanently damage vision. Rarer forms of glaucoma cause damage to the optic nerves in a variety of different ways, but all of them involve damage of the optic nerve.
Glaucoma, a disease of the eye caused by damage to the optic nerve, cannot be definitively prevented. However, with proper treatment and early diagnosis, many of the more severe side effects can be avoided. In addition, exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on an individual’s intraocular pressure and thereby the likelihood of developing glaucoma. Regular eye checks are still the best preventative measure one can take if you are concerned about glaucoma.
When treating glaucoma, your doctor may suggest a variety or combination of treatments including eye drops, surgery or medication. However, damage to the optic nerve is almost always irreversible. Because of this, it’s important to understand your risk factors and to seek immediate medical attention if you believe you are experiencing symptoms of glaucoma.
Glaucoma can be treated with a number of methods, the most common being eye drops prescribed by a doctor to reduce pressure. In more severe cases, surgery may be required. Other treatment programs have been developed which include oral medication and non-traditional treatments like marijuana, but these are not widely considered as effective as traditional means.
Once high ocular pressure has progressed to the point that it causes damage to the optic nerve, the damage caused by glaucoma cannot be cured or reversed. However, with proper treatment, high ocular pressure can be significantly reduced before lasting damage happens to the eye. The focus of glaucoma treatment is to reduce the pressure on the optic nerve before permanent damage occurs to the eye.
While most glaucoma cannot be effectively cured, many lifestyle choices and treatment methods are effective in treating the symptoms of glaucoma and preventing damage to the eye. A diet which requires low insulin levels, exercise and some nutrients such as carotenoids have been shown to have a positive impact for glaucoma treatment and prevention.
If you are experiencing problems with your vision such as light sensitivity, poor night vision or dulled colors, you may have a cataract. A cataract is a type of visual impairment caused by clouding of the typically clear lens of the eye which distorts light rays entering the eye. Symptoms of cataracts can range from mild to severe and can be treated with surgery.
The effects of cataracts can range from mild to severe. Some treatments are effective in slowing the progression of cataracts or preventing further damage, but often the symptoms become worse over time and ultimately can result in total blindness. Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of blindness.
For those suffering from cataracts, surgery may be an attractive option for restoring healthy vision. However, before undergoing any type of surgery, it is important to understand the risks. A doctor may recommend surgery if cataracts are severely impacting the quality of a patient’s life.
If you suffer from cataracts, your ophthalmologist may recommend cataract surgery to restore your vision and improve your daily life. During this procedure, your surgeon will remove your natural, clouded lens and replace it with an artificial, clear lens. This surgery is generally considered an effective treatment method for cataracts, but like all surgeries, it is not without risk. If considering surgery to repair your eyesight, consult with your ophthalmologist and he/she will provide you with further information.
Cataracts can cause severe eyesight complications, and many sufferers seriously consider surgery as an option to restore their vision. Fortunately, cataract surgery is a relatively simple procedure and usually does not last more than 15 minutes without complications. However, the surgery is performed under the influence of anesthesia, and a patient should expect the total procedure, including post-surgery recovery time, to take approximately 60 to 90 minutes.
Every year, over 3 million Americans undergo cataract surgery, with a 98% success rate. Cataract surgery is widely considered one of the simplest common medical procedures, as it only takes 15 minutes of actual surgery time. The surgeon removes the clouded lens from the eye and implants an artificial clear lens in its place. These lenses are actually considered superior to natural eye lenses after successful transplantation, as they are immune to infectious disease.
Cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the United States and boasts a 98% success record.
Cataract surgery is a relatively quick and simple procedure, but it will take a few days before the patient begins noticing improvements in vision. A patient may experience some mild itching and discomfort, but these side effects usually subside after a few days. Follow-up appointments with your ophthalmologist or surgeon will ensure healing is progressing as expected. Usually, the eye will completely heal in about 2 months.
For most patients, mild side effects such as blurry vision and itchy eyes subside within a week. Follow ups with your doctor will ensure that your vision is progressing normally. After eight weeks the eye should be fully healed.
Cataract surgery, fortunately, is considered one of the simplest and lowest risk common surgeries. The most common side effects are blurred vision and irritated sinuses or eyes, which typically subside after three to four days post-surgery. Your doctor will schedule several staggered follow-up appointments to monitor your recovery and by 8 weeks, your vision should be fully recovered.
Cataracts can only be corrected permanently by the fixation of an artificial lens to the eye, which replaces the clouded afflicted eye. Because of the nature of the disease—a clouding of the natural lens, it is impossible for cataracts to come back. If there are no post-surgical complications, the artificial lenses are widely considered superior alternatives to even clear natural lenses as they are impervious to disease or degradation.
No. The vast majority of people with diabetes do not have eye complications. If diabetes is treated early and well controlled, patients tend to have very good outcomes.
When people with diabetes do not control their blood glucose levels well, they may experience swelling or thinning of the lens of their eyes, which will mean that their glasses prescriptions will be constantly changing. Once they control their blood glucose levels, they should be able to get a prescription that works.
People with diabetes who do not control their blood glucose levels are at a greater risk of developing cataracts earlier than adults without diabetes. People with diabetes can get a particularly aggressive type of cataract that comes on rather quickly called a Posterior Subcapsular Cataract. People with this type of cataract will experience a glare-like effect in their vision and have trouble reading.
Preventing diabetic eye disease goes hand-in-hand with preventing diabetic complications in general: maintaining healthy levels of blood glucose and blood pressure are important. Other things that can help are maintaining a good diet and exercise routine and following up with your primary care physician on a regular basis.
Retinopathy is one of the most devastating complications of diabetes. It happens when the blood vessels start to leak fluid into the retina and the retina (the back of the eye) does not work properly. It can get swollen or develop traction from fibrovascular tissue forming in the back of the eye. Retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness.
There are many treatments for diabetic retinopathy. Most commonly, medications are injected into the eye. Laser treatment can also be done. For the most advanced cases, traditional surgery may be necessary.
It varies. Some patients may have absolutely no symptoms at all if the retinopathy is relatively mild. But if it is extensive or if the person has bleeding in the eye, their vision may be affected so much that they can’t even see the big “E” on the eye chart.
The mainstays of managing diabetic retinopathy are regular eye exams, up-to-date glasses prescriptions, and treating other coexisting problems like cataracts. Patients will also want to maintain a healthy diet, implement an exercise regimen, and keep their blood glucose levels and blood pressure under control–the same things that are recommended for anyone with diabetes.
Before going in for a preoperative consultation, you should stop wearing your contact lenses for a week (2-3 weeks if you wear hard lenses) because they have an effect on the curvature and general health of the surface of the eye. LASIK requires that the front part of the eye go back to its natural position before taking final measurements for the laser prescription.
LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis. It is a surgical procedure done on the eyes to improve vision and reduce a person’s need for glasses or contact lenses. In LASIK surgery, surgeons use lasers to cut a flap in the cornea (the clear covering of the front of the eye) and change the shape of the cornea, allowing the light to focus better so that patients can see without having to wear glasses or contact lenses.
In addition to taking the measurements for the laser prescription, the doctor will measure pupil size, corneal curvature, and shape, as well as the patient’s glasses prescription.
The FDA estimates that over a half a million people undergo the procedure in the United States alone every year.
LASIK can be a great option for patients who do not want to wear their glasses or contact lenses. Most people who wear glasses or contact lenses are good candidates for LASIK.
As with any surgical procedure, there are risks. You should talk to your doctor about them. However, the chance of a serious problem with a LASIK procedure is very low. The most common complication is a temporary increase in dry eye symptoms but those usually go away after a short period of time. Some patients will require an additional treatment for fine tuning (these are known as enhancement procedures or retreatments) but these are no longer very common with laser technology and treatment nomograms.
After patients are prepped for the procedure, they are given the opportunity to take a relaxing medicine (such as Valium) prior to proceeding. After about 20 minutes, they are then brought into the laser room for about 15 minutes. During this time, the laser treatments are done for no longer than 20 seconds at a time. The first part of the procedure involves making a corneal flap in the front part of the eye. If you think of the cornea is being about a half a millimeter in thickness, the first laser will create a thin plane in the front part of that front window or part of the eye at about a 15% depth. Once that flap is created, the patient is moved under the excimer laser. Then the flap is elevated so that the permanent layers of the cornea are exposed. The excimer laser then essentially etches a lens into the patient’s cornea. Once the excimer laser has done its treatment, the corneal flap is repositioned and the procedure is then complete. The procedure is done one eye at a time.
There is an eye tracker on the excimer laser that follows the eye as it has its small movements during the procedure, so there is no need to worry about moving your eye.
Surface Laser Ablation (also known as LASEK) is another corneal reshaping procedure that can be done for patients who want to see without glasses but are not candidates for LASIK. LASEK utilizes the same laser but instead of making a flap of tissue before reshaping the eye, they just reshape the surface of the eye. This is known to be the safest of all laser vision correction procedures and the results are indistinguishable from LASIK. The main difference is that the recovery is a bit slower than it is with LASIK. During this recovery time, patients may feel discomfort, pain, or blurriness before the bandage contact lens is removed.
After the operation, your doctor might recommend a pain reliever. If you experience severe pain or worsening of symptoms, you should contact your doctor immediately. In terms of visits, you should see your doctor within the first 2 days after surgery and at regular intervals for at least the first 6 months. At the initial visit after surgery, your doctor will remove the eye shield and test and examine your eye. You may receive eye drops to prevent infection or inflammation or be told to use artificial tears to lubricate the eye. Your doctor may also advise against using lotions, creams, or make-up around the eye for up to two weeks and avoid swimming and strenuous activity for a month or two. Your vision might not completely stabilize until 3-6 months after surgery.
The recovery process depends on the individual. You are likely to see improvement in vision within the first few days but may not fully recover with normal eyesight until 3-6 months after the procedure.
You do need to protect your eyes so if you are engaging in activities where your eye may come into contact with something or someone, you are advised to wear safety goggles for about a month after surgery. For the first few days after surgery, you may want to wear sunglasses when going outside or eye shields when sleeping.
You may receive eye drops to prevent infection or inflammation or be told to use artificial tears to lubricate the eye.
Send this to a friend